Painting 101 – Lesson 1 – Building the mini – Theoretical

Building the miniature

No matter how good your paint job, you are a bit limited by the model you are painting on.  Thats not to say you can’t add detail through painting extra features on, but if your model is badly assembled, that’s going to show through.  A good paint job will highlight a models best features and make a good mini great, or a bad mini look good, but there’s a lot you can do to start from that higher starting point.

How can we improve our work on the build itself?  Well, we can actually do those bits and pieces we sometimes skip out of boredom or laziness!  

Check the mini

Check the minis and sprues, and swap them with the manufacturer if of unacceptable quality (pretty much unheard of with plastics unless somethings missing in packing, but resin can have casting issues).

Clean the minis!  

Wash the resin, metal or plastic, and you can find major differences in priming and painting later.  Some people like to do that on the sprue, to help keep little parts together, while others prefer to do this later on, so any dust from filing or oily fingerprints are removed as well as any oils from the mould removal and packing processes.  Its a matter of preference – I tend to lose little bits so I do this on sprue, but its fractionally better to do it later on.  Just rinse the models off in warm soapy water, then rinse any soap off with clean water.  Simple!

To be fair, its a bonus extra step if using top quality grippy primers.  I’ve seen some people not even clean resin when using sticky car primer and get away with it.  Still, best practise!

Remove bits from sprues

Now, be really careful when cutting the mini from the sprues.  Use a decent set of sharp cutters.  I’ve tried lots of brands, but honestly, the only important thing I’ve found is to make sure the blades are sharp.  The brand doesn’t matter – a cheap set from a hardware store is just as good as expensive fine cutters, if not as pretty, as long as the blades are fresh.  Its amazing how much of a difference it makes.  I’m terrible for using old dull cutters for ages, and it can really impact some of the details on your models.  Check the instructions to make sure you aren’t cutting off attachment pins and that you are keeping the relevant bits together.  If doing a unit, a really nice trick is to get a big egg box and put the bits for each model in each egg section as you cut them off to stop them getting mixed up and you using the wrong bit on the wrong model.  Take your time, and look at how each piece is attached to the sprue.  The force of the clippers can twist the part slightly, so you want to try and cut the piece off in such a way the more delicate parts won’t bear the brunt of the force.  If its a bit difficult, generally cutting any attachments on the more delicate bits first is a good rule of thumb.

Prepare the bits

Next, clear off mould lines or any excess plastic (or resin) from where you cut them off the sprues.  It sounds obvious, but honestly, with the decent positioning of mould lines on modern models and the better initial production values, you can often get away without this for tabletop.  I’m lazy and rarely bother unless I’m pushing myself!  But it does make a difference!  Even if you don’t bother for troops, try to make sure you clean up the model right for those special paint jobs.  The GW mould line scraper is great for this, and a small set of decent quality files are great.  Just be careful not to damage any details in the removal.

This is a good point to consider any kit bashing – adding any extra pieces in from for bits box.  You’ve got most of the pieces, but are you happy with the weapons load out?  Would a custom Blood Angels bolter look better than the plain one?  Maybe a headswap?  Maybe think about how the pieces might look with some of the resin bases you have available.  You have all the pieces cut out now, try a few options with blutack if you want.  Get a feel for how it looks.

Fix the bits

Once you have the final set of pieces cut out and cleaned off at this point, you may need to fix or manually alter them.  Resin may have some small bubbles leaving tiny holes – these can be fixed by patching them with GW’s liquid green stuff (or similar product from other brands) if small enough.  If the bubbles are larger than that, then honestly, you should probably have got the mini swapped!  Think about replacing the part from your bits box, or patching it with full on green stuff that you’ll need to roll together.

Resin bits may warp slightly, and these can be fixed by heating them and bending back into shape.  Some materials work best dipped quickly into boiling water then pulled out (carefully, watching your hands), and bending back into shape.  Others respond best to gentle heating with a hairdryer or hot steam over a bowl of boiling water.

Improve the bits

So, we have a full set of pieces, all cleaned up and ready!  What else do we need to do now?  Well, the last bit before any assembly here is to think of adding any more details or improve joints ourselves.  This is the time to add any brass etching pieces to the mix, think about small green stuff additions (like using a press mould to add a logo to a pad or a a gun – tweet or comment here if you want this section expanded).

Its also time to get a little drill out, if appropriate, and do some pinning for larger models (you used to have to pin everything in the metal days!), and maybe drill out gun barrels.  This is a lot easier than it sounds if you have a little hobby drill. (drop me a tweet or comment if you want this bit expanded on).

If you want to customise your models with battle damage, you can etch in bullet holes or damage at this point too.

This whole section is bonus extras, though.  If you just want to take a stock mini as far as you can, you don’t need to improve it.

Plan the assembly

Now, its time to actually build the mini!  So, what can we do to make things easier for ourselves?  Well, not build the mini, for one thing.  That may sound counter intuitive, but think – often there are hard to reach areas on a model.  If you paint individual parts, or assemble a marine but wait to put the gun over the front, you can probably reach those parts much more easily.  Maybe use blutack to fit the pieces together in theory, work out which bits we can assemble now to paint easily, and which bits we should paint separately to make life as easy as possible for us.

If you just want a tabletop quality job, its probably not too much of a drama.  Assemble the minis, get a few games in, paint them up when you can.  But if you want to go all out, taking your time and planning the assembly to take painting into account really helps.

Different glues for different materials

We also need to plan out what we want to use to assemble the model in terms of glues.  Everyone knows this, right?  PVA to glue light basing material on.  Superglue for metal and resin.  Plastic glue for plastic,  Easy!

Well, actually, not so easy if you want to do the very best job you can.  You can get glues in a range of types and viscosities, and the wrong glue for the job will lead to problems.  Its something to think seriously about! 

There’s also a few other glues to consider, and sprays to set glue faster (normally at the expense of generating more heat).  Epoxy resin (normally in two parts that needs to be mixed up, and often referred to as araldite in the UK) is an amazingly solid bond, though takes time to set.  It can be a great way to get metal models with a good connection to be set permanently – though a wobbly connection will be a nightmare to set this way.

Both plastic glue and superglue tend to come in thin and thick varieties.  Thin glues won’t tend to make such a strong bond, but be much easier to place exactly and cause less problems with overflow.  Its generally better for smaller pieces and sometimes for display pieces where you don’t need to stand up to tabletop play.  Thicker glue is great for bigger internal connections, but is often actually quite useful for closing  small gaps too (in the case of superglue or epoxy resin, not plastic glue).  Zap-a-gap glue is particularly good for closing small holes, and more of GW’s green stuff can cover up cracks as long as you are confident the underlying bond is solid.

You can use various fixing sprays to speed up the superglue bond, but this will generate more heat, and some plastics in particular are vulnerable to this (though its fantastic to quickly bond metal to metal). Resin can end up bending with heat, so it can throw your model out of kilter.

Every glue tends to have two times listed – the time to bond, and the time to “cure” or to fully set and reach maximum strength.  Doing a normal model, I don’t worry about it.  If its dry, its on to priming!  For a top notch model, you need to make sure the model has cured too before you do anything else to ensure you don’t get even the slightest movement.

You also need to think about how its applied.  I tend to like brush applicators for a light coat, but they aren’t alway as precise for tiny pieces.  Gel glue has to be squeezed on, by its nature, and can be a bit blobby, but brilliant for core joints.  Gw’s thin glue has a nice tiny applicator, which is really useful.

Look at the materials and joints, and think about the glues you will need to use to do the best job of securing the model together without damaging the details or leaving gluey fingerprints all over the place!  Plan out what you’ll need where.  You might not just use one glue in a joint – in a big metal dreadnaught, I’ve pinned it with a ring of epoxy resin and an outer ring of superglue set with an quick spray of fixer. The superglue held the joint in place while the epoxy resin set and cured and gave a really solid connection.  Generally, though, PVA for the base, and either superglue or plastic glue for the mini are the main focus.

Assemble (or Part Assemble) the mini

Follow the instructions to assemble the mini … in the sections you want for easy painting.  Don’t attach the base, for example – we’ll pop it on a mini holder (like a wine cork!) when we paint it seriously.  We may want to change the angle and get in from underneath, which is tricky with a big base.

Now, we need to talk about which bits to actually assemble!  There are two main goals.  First, we want to put the model into sections that we can prime as one.  If we are building a razorback, we might prime the turret in silver and the main body in a chapter colour, for example.  Some parts of the model might be very bright, and be better primed in white.  Others might be better primed in back.  We’ll cover these ideas in the lesson on priming models, but it helps if you have an idea what colours you are going to paint the model.  There’s a cracking guide to painting St Celestine in February’s White Dwarf that covers building her in bits and priming different sections in different colours

Second, we need to assemble the model in sections that will make it easy to paint, not just prime.  We might prime the whole model in a neutral grey.  We probably don’t want marines holding boaters over their chests so we can’t get at the details.  Work out where there are details that you will want to focus on for the level of painting you want to achieve, and try to make sure you can always get a paintbrush into place.  Trying it out with blutack really helps here!

So … we’ve got all the bits ready to go and sorted out, looked at all the parts, worked out the glues to use on each joints, worked out which sections to build to ease priming and painting.  Now just put them together, and we’ll be ready to move onto priming and colour choices!

Extra Step!

I missed a really useful step, recommended by Leonidas – it can really help to give the model a quick was with paint thinner to break up any remaining oil or soap at this stage!  Make sure you use a thinner compatible with your planned primer!  This really does help make sure the primer gets a good grip, and is particularly helpful if you are just going straight to a base coat or a less grippy primer.  Oddly, I’d say this step is most important if you’ve hand washed the model in soapy warm water – the thinner is particularly useful to help break up any soap remaining.  You’ve probably already got rid of the oils!

Final theoretical

At the end of our first theoretical …. we haven’t done any painting.  But its hopefully a really good reflection on just getting models ready to do our best!  One thing thats sprung out to me is how much the stages of painting inter-relate.  Breaking down the model into sections to prime only works if you know what colours those sections will be.  Often you only pick colours when you see a model assembled.   Which comes first? 

Putting all these preparation notes together really helps you think about the process.   I’ve seen great guides on pinning, on drilling, on using glue x.  Actually putting it together to think about the overall process so you can actively decide which bits to skip for speed, and making sure you cover your bases for your top notch pieces has been really useful.

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