Lets start off with the really hard one – Composition. Composition is basically EVERYTHING that makes up your finished mini, and as such, I suspect I’m going to revisit this post lots of times as I go through the individual stages. Given that, why am I tackling it first? Because we need to have an overall eye on the goal when we go through each of the individual stages.
Every choice you make as you assemble and paint your model is going to make a difference. If I pose and sculpt a miniature to look brooding and evil, and then paint it in cheery bright colours, it won’t be as potent as matching at overall theme.
A word used a lot in Golden Demon (and I’m going to refer to Golden Demon a lot in this process, as I’m going to try to use this to build a Golden Demon entry for 2020) is Narrative. Your finished model is going to tell a story, and thats what the whole composition should be about. In the same way that the best writers say “kill your darlings” to remove passages you love but don’t add to the story, you aren’t looking for excuses to use your favourite painting techniques or colours. You want the model to tell the best overall story possible. That isn’t to say you can’t use your best techniques – just don’t use them where they don’t work with the theme for the model. Obviously a smart move for a painting competition is to work out your very best techniques and build a theme that really uses and highlights those!
Now, for Golden Demon, we’ve also got to make the narrative for our miniature tie to the world of Warhammer. We can enter the best miniature in the world, but if it’s a Khorne Beserker in pink armour sipping a cup of tea, it doesn’t match the underlying official narrative of Warhammer. (Incidentally, I love pink Beserkers – I just might not choose it for a competition judged on official themes!)
So, how do we tell a story, and what makes up the composition of our finished model? We have an assembled model which is posed to reflect some underlying intent. The pose should also be designed to draw attention to key elements of the miniature – if you plan to spend 90% of your painting time on one of the best faces the world has ever seen, you don’t really want the pose to emphasis a plain sword – you want the pose and lines of the model to draw the eye to that face! You also don’t want the lines of the model (or overall diorama) to draw attention away from the model unless its to something specific elsewhere on the model or base. We’ll talk about posing in detail, but its really a key part of the composition, and you need to take your final goal very much into account when posing a model.
We might have used some custom parts from other minis to customise the model, or gone as far to sculpt or alter the miniature. We shouldn’t make these changes in isolation without thinking of the overall composition. Putting a massive siege weapon on one army of the model may look cool in theory, but might make the whole model look unbalanced and clumsy. Generally, most of these decisions are made for us when assembling a mini out of the box – when we start customising, we need to think much harder about the overall balance of the piece. Is the miniature too busy? Is it too plain? If its plain, do we want to add details to the sculpt, or use the space to add details with the brush? If we haven’t thought about the overall goal, the end result will fall short of other pieces, regardless of how well each individual change is executed and how solid the paint job is.
Colour theory is a fantastic basis for picking the colours we want to paint with, allowing great choices for contrast and complementary colours to really build a fantastic, unified model. But we still need to pick those colours in relation to what we intend to achieve. A dark knight painted in bright blues won’t be a dark knight! A battered, weary warrior painted in really crisp bright white won’t look like they’re straight from the battlefield.
A really important aspect of painting a display piece is understanding light sources – where the light should fall. Where the shadows lurk. Its very easy to mechanistically simply darken recesses and lighten raised points, and that works well for a tabletop mini, but when painting a display piece you need to go a step further and really work with light. The process is still fundamentally the same, but the lightness of colours will be affected by where the light originates, not just the folds of the miniature. And those choices of light sources again need to tie into the narrative. Is there an unworldly glow from the minis eyes and hands? Are they standing in the dark, illuminated by a nearby fire? if they are simply on the field in the sun – where is that sun beaming down? Where should the metals be reflecting that light? These choices all tie into the story your piece is telling.
That ties into the next piece of theory – understanding the materials you want the miniature to exhibit. Is that armour metal? Bone? Leather? Is it hard or soft to the touch? Is it woven, and need to exhibit more texture when painted? What animal is that fur from? Do you need to think about patterns like leopard spots? Is that leather old and cracked, or new and shiny? There are lots of painting techniques to reflect the possibilities. If you don’t think of the overall composition, though, you’ll have jarring elements. A weary battle scarred veteran with shiny new leather boots and battered armour? That doesn’t quite gel. Black and white zebra stripes on that leather cloak may look amazing, but animal hide patterns on a civilised knight will again tend to jar against the overall picture. If we’re painting a glass bottle, do we need to paint the contents as well as the reflective surface? And if that’s a liquid, it’ll look very wrong if you paint it so its an angle on the finished mini. Liquid tends to stay level – what is level for this piece? That may not be down for unusual magical or sci-fi environments – if you paint a zero-g piece, the liquid in the bottle actually runs around the internal surface, rather than being level!
Basing your miniature falls into painting for some, and assembly for others. You may want a simple base to avoid detracting from the mini. The base may be fully part of the story. In some complex dioramas, the terrain on the base may be the key element of the story, and the minis only there to highlight a reaction to it! No matter how simple or complex the base, though, it needs to tie into the story of the whole piece. Having pristine grass underneath a being of molten lava doesn’t really work. Having a delicate water elemental on a lava base will look wrong too, no matter how well done the elements are. Basing is often forgotten or done as an afterthought, but it should be tied to the overall narrative.
In short, while we need to understand a lot of different concepts that we need to execute well to put together a fantastic model, we also need to keep our eye on the overall theme. We need all of the elements to work together to tell our story. We are composing a narrative, not slapping some parts together and executing separate painting techniques. We all do this, but its often quite rare to step back and do this consciously … and for a top level piece we need to make decisions for the best results, not expediency. If I just have standard flock, that’s probably what I’ll use for the base of a tabletop piece for a game next week. If I’m painting for a competition, I need to use the best basing material for the piece, even if I have to order some or sculpt something from scratch.
Further reading suggestions on Composition
Creative Twilight has an excellent article here on composition in miniatures, touching on many of these points. Well worth a look.
Warlord Games has a fascinating piece on How to Diorama, which covers lots of aspects of the overall composition, and I find a truly valuable reference.
Arcane Paintworks has a fantastic article focusing on integrating basing into the overall composition of display pieces here.